## Syllabus

JEE Main February 2021 Syllabus (New) BE/BTech:

Below is the detailed JEE Main February 2021 paper 1 syllabus for three subjects - Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. Candidates can go through the syllabus along with topic-wise weightage in each subject.

JEE Mains 2021 Syllabus: Mathematics

The Mathematics section will carry 30 questions. There will be two sections i.e. Section A and Section B. Section A will be comprised of Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) and Section B will contain questions whose answers are to be filled in as a numerical value. In Section B, candidates have to attempt any five questions out of 10. There will be no negative marking for Section B. However, in Section A, any question answered incorrectly, one mark will be deducted by -1 marks . In 2019, the highest weightage in Mathematics was given to chapters like sequence and series, straight lines, 3D, Determinant, etc. Check out the detailed mathematics syllabus of JEE Mains 2021 in the table below. The reduced syllabus of JEE main for Mathematics is also given.

 Units Topics Unit 1: Sets, relations and functions Sets and their representation, Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties, Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions; One-one, into and onto functions, the composition of functions. Unit 2: Complex numbers and quadratic equations Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals,Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram,algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots. Unit 3: Matrices and determinants Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices. Unit 4:Permutations and combinations Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and Combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications. Unit 5: Mathematical induction Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications Unit 6: Binomial theorem and its simple applications Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients simple applications Unit 7: Sequences and series Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers relation between A.M. and G.M. sum upto n terms of special series: Sn, Sn2, Sn3Arithmetic - Geometric progression UNIT 8: Limit, continuity and differentiability Real valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions Graphs of simple functions Limits, continuity and differentiabilityDifferentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions,  Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions derivatives of order up to two Rolleâ€™s and Lagrangeâ€™s Mean Value Theorems Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic-increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals Unit 9: Integral calculus Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form. Unit 10: Differential equations Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree.Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy/dx+p(x)y=q(x) Unit 11: Co-ordinate geometry Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane,distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation,translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Straight lines: Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. Circles, conic sections: Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle, equation of the tangent. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency. Unit 12: Three dimensional geometry Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, direction ratios and direction cosines, angle between two intersecting lines.Skew lines, the shortest distance between them and its equation. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms, intersection of a line and a plane, coplanar lines. Unit 13: Vector algebra Vectors and scalars: addition of vectors, components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space, scalar and vector products, scalar and vector triple product. Unit 14: Statistics and probability Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean, median, mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation, variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data.Probability: Probability of an event, addition and multiplication theorems of probability, Bayeâ€™s theorem, probability distribution of a random variate, Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution. Unit 15: Trigonometry Trigonometrical identities and equations Trigonometrical functions, Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties Heights and Distances Unit 16: Mathematical reasoning Statements, logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if Understanding of tautology, contradiction, converse and contrapositive

Reduced Syllabus of Mathematics - Class 11 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 11 mathematics in the table below:

 Unit/Chapter Syllabus Reduced Unit-I: Sets and Functions 1.Sets Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement 2.Relations & Functions (up to RXRXR ) Sum, Difference, product and quotients of functions 3. Trigonometric Functions General Solutions of trigonometric equations of the type siny=sina, cosy=cosa and tany= tana. Unit-II: Algebra 1. Principle of Mathematical Induction Delete full chapter 2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Polar representation of complex numbersSquare root of a complex number 3. Linear Inequalities Nil 4. Permutations and Combinations Derivation of formulae for nPr and nCr 5.Binomial theorem Delete full Chapter 6. Sequence and Series Formulae for the following special sums âˆ‘K, âˆ‘K2, âˆ‘K3 Unit-III: Coordinate geometry 1. Straight Lines Shifting of origin. Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines 2. Conic sections A point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. 3.Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry Nil Unit-IV : Calculus 1. Limits and Derivatives Nil Unit-V : Mathematical Reasoning 1. Mathematical Reasoning Delete full chapter Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability 1. Statistics Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances. 2. Probability Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with other theories of earlier classes

Reduced Syllabus of Mathematics- Class 12 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 12 mathematics in the table below:

 Unit/Chapter Syllabus Reduced Unit-I: Relations and Functions 1. Relations and Functions Composite functions, inverse of a function. 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions, Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions Unit-II: Algebra 1. Matrices Existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix. Concept of elementary row and column operations.Proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists. 2. Determinants Properties of determinants, Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, Unit-III: Calculus 1. Continuity and Differentiability Rolleâ€™s and  Mean Value Theorems of Lagrange (without proof) and their geometric interpretation. 2. Applications of Derivatives Rate of change of bodies, use of derivatives in approximation 3. Integrals âˆ« âˆšax2, âˆ« (ax+b)âˆšax2 + bx + c dxDefinite integrals as a limit of a sum 4. Applications of the Integrals Area between any of the two above said curves 5. Differential Equations Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: ds+px=q, where p and q are functions of y or constants i.e. dy Unit-IV: Vectors and Three- Dimensional Geometry 1. Vectors Scalar triple product of vectors. 2. Three - dimensional Geometry Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane Unit-V: Linear Programming 1. Linear Programming Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems (unbounded) Unit-VI: Probability 1. Probability Mean and variance of random variable. Binomial probability distribution.

JEE Main February 2021 Paper 1 Syllabus: Topic-wise Weightage for Mathematics

Below is the previous years JEE Main weightage along with important topics asked in the exam.

 Topics No of Questions Marks Weightage Quadratic Equation 1 4 3.33% Sequences and  Series 2 8 6.67% Trigonometric Equation 1 4 3.33% Limit 1 4 3.33% Differentiability 1 4 3.33% Indefinite Integration 1 4 3.33% Definite Integration 1 4 3.33% Differential Equation 1 4 3.33% Area Under the Curve 1 4 3.33% Straight Line 2 8 6.67% Vector 1 4 3.37% 3-D 2 8 6.67% Permutation and combination 1 4 3.33% Probability 1 4 3.33% Complex Number 1 4 3.33% Binominal Theorem 1 4 3.33% Determinant 2 8 6.67% Tangent and Normal 1 4 3.33% Maxima and Minima 1 4 3.33% Statistics 1 4 3.33% Parabola 1 4 3.33% Ellipse 1 4 3.33% Hyperbola 1 4 3.33% Mathematical Reasoning 1 4 3.33% Height & Distance 1 4 3.33% Sets 1 4 3.33% Total 30 120 100%

JEE Main 2021 Syllabus: Physics

Physics is one of the major sections of JEE Syllabus 2021. Students have to answer 30 questions carrying 4 marks each for correct answer or the best answer. JEE Main syllabus for Physics comprises topics like Kinematics, Optics, Laws Of Motion, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Properties of Solids And Liquids etc. Last year, the highest weightage in Physics was given to topics like current electricity, alternating current, Rotational dynamics, Modern Physics etc. JEE Mains 2021 syllabus includes two sections A and B. Section A includes Theory part with 80% weightage and section B contains practical component (experimental skills) with 20% weightage. Check out the full JEE 2021 syllabus for Physics below. The reduced syllabus of JEE main for Physics is also given.

 Units Topics Unit 1: Physics And Measurement Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units, Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments,Errors in measurement, Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications Unit 2: Kinematics Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity, Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector, Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion Unit 3: Laws Of Motion Force and Inertia, Newtonâ€™s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newtonâ€™s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newtonâ€™s Third Law of motion.Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications. Unit 4: Work, Energy And Power Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power. Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. Unit 5: Rotational Motion Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion. Unit 6: Gravitation The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth, Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites. Unit 7: Properties Of Solids And Liquids Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hookeâ€™s Law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascalâ€™s law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulliâ€™s principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension â€“ drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newtonâ€™s law of cooling. Unit 8: Thermodynamics Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency. Unit 9: Kinetic Theory Of Gases Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: r.m.s. speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadroâ€™s number. Unit 10: Oscillations And Waves Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M - kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum - derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound Unit 11: Electrostatics Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulombâ€™s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.Electric flux, Gaussâ€™s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor. Unit 12: Current Electricity Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohmâ€™s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.  Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoffâ€™s laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.Potentiometer - principle and its applications. Unit 13: Magnetic Effects Of Current And Magnetism Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampereâ€™s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earthâ€™s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets. Unit 14: Electromagnetic Induction And Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction; Faradayâ€™s law, induced emf and current; Lenzâ€™s Law, Eddy currents.Self and mutual inductance.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, watt-less current. AC generator and transformer. Unit 15: Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays).Applications of E.M. waves. Unit 16: Optics Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.Wave opticsWave front and principle  of Huygen, Laws of reflection and refraction using principle  of Huygen. Interference, Youngâ€™s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width.Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewsterâ€™s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids. Unit 17: Dual Nature Of Matter And radiation Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenardâ€™s observations; Einsteinâ€™s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment. Unit 18: Atoms And Nuclei Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherfordâ€™s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion. Unit 19: Electronic Devices Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch. Unit 20: Communication Systems Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only). Section BUnit 21:Experimental Skills Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities

Reduced Syllabus of Physics - Class 11 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 11 Physics in the table below:

 Chapters Topics Reduced Chapterâ€“1 Physical World Chapter-3 : Motion in a straight lineFrame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity Chapter-5 Laws of MotionIntuitive concept of force, Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion Chapter-7 System of Particles and Rotational MotionStatement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Chapter-8 GravitationKepler's laws of planetary motion, Acceleration due to gravity Chapter-9 Mechanical Properties of SolidsElastic behaviour, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy. Chapter-11 Thermal properties matterHeat, temperature, Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation Chapter-12 ThermodynamicsHeat engine and refrigerator. Chapter-15 WavesFundamental mode and harmonics, Doppler effect.

Reduced Syllabus of Physics - Class 12 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 12 Physics in the table below:

 Chapters Topics Reduced Chapter 1 Electric charges and fieldsuniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Chapter 3 Current ElectricityCarbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors Chapter 4 Moving Charges and MagnetismCyclotron Chapter 5 Magnetism and Mattermagnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field;Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets. Chapter 7 Alternating Currentpower factor, wattless current. Chapter 8 Electromagnetic WavesBasic idea of displacement current, Chapter 9 Ray Optics and Optical InstrumentsReflection of light, spherical mirrors,(recapitulation) mirror formula,Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, Polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids. Chapter 11 Dual Nature of radiation and matterDavisson-Germer experiment Chapter 13 NucleiRadioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law, half-life and mean lifebinding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number Chapter 14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple CircuitsZener diode and their characteristics, Zener diode as a voltage regulator.

JEE Mains 2021 Syllabus: Topic-wise Weightage for Physics

Below is the JEE Main physics topics, number of questions asked and marks distribution in the previous years exam.

 Topics No of Questions Marks Weightage Electrostatics 1 4 3.33% Current Electricity 3 12 10.00% Capacitor 1 4 3.33% Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism 2 8 6.67% Alternating Current 2 8 6.67% KTG & Thermodynamics 2 8 6.67% SHM 1 4 3.33% Sound Waves 1 4 3.33% KInematics 1 4 3.33% Work Power Energy 1 4 3.33% Kinematics 1 4 3.33% Laws of motion 1 4 3.33% Work, Power and Energy 1 4 6.67% Centre Of Mass 2 8 6.67% Rotational Dynamics 2 8 6.67% Modern Physics 2 8 6.67% NLM 1 4 3.33% Elasticity 1 4 3.33% Wave Optics 2 8 6.67% Error 1 4 3.33% Circular Motion 1 4 3.33% Electromagnetic Waves 1 4 3.33% Semiconductors 1 4 3.33% Communication System 1 4 3.33% Total 30 120 100%

JEE Main 2021 Syllabus: Chemistry

The chemistry section of JEE Mains Syllabus 2021 comprises numerical as well as theoretical questions carrying 30 questions. In JEE Main 2020, Chemical Bonding in Organic Chemistry, Halogen Derivative in  Organic Chemistry and Ionic Equilibrium etc were given the highest weightage. The reduced syllabus of JEE main for Chemistry is also given. The entire chemistry section of JEE Main syllabus is spread over three sections.

(1)  Physical Chemistry

(2)  Organic Chemistry

(3) Inorganic Chemistry

Take a look at new JEE Mains 2021 Syllabus for Chemistry below.

 Units Topics Section A: Physical Chemistry Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts In Chemistry Matter and its nature, Daltonâ€™s atomic theory, Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound, Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combinationAtomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae, Chemical equations and stoichiometry Unit 2: States Of Matter Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states. Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases, Gas laws-Boyleâ€™s law, Charleâ€™s law, Grahamâ€™s law of diffusion, Avogadroâ€™s law, Daltonâ€™s law of partial pressure, Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates), Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities, Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor and van der Waals equation Liquid State: Properties of liquids-vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only). Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea) Braggâ€™s Law and its applications, Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids, Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties Unit 3: Atomic Structure Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitationsNature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effectSpectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom-its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohrâ€™s model, Dual nature of matter, de-Broglieâ€™s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functionsvarious quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significanceshapes of s, p and d â€“ orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number, Rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauliâ€™s exclusion principle and rule of Hund, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals. Unit 4: Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure Kossel-Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy. Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, rule of Fajan, dipole moment, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules, Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory-Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals Resonance, Molecular Orbital Theory-Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homo-nuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy. Unit 5: Chemical Thermodynamics Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes. First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity, Hessâ€™s law of constant heat summation, Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution, Second law of thermodynamics. Spontaneity of processes, change in entropy of the universe and change in Gibbs free energy of the system as criteria for spontaneity, Standard Gibbs energy change and equilibrium constant. Unit 6: Solutions Different methods for expressing concentration of solution-molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoultâ€™s Law -Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure-composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutionsColligative properties of dilute solutions: Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressureDetermination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, vant Hoff factor and its significance Unit 7: Equilibrium Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium. Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid-gas and solid-gas equilibria, Henryâ€™s law, general characteristics of equilibrium involving physical processes.Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of free energy and standard free energy  in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelierâ€™s principle. Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid-base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions. Unit 8: Redox Reactions And Electrochemistry Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions. Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrauschâ€™s law and its applications. Electrochemical cells: Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half-cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement, Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbsâ€™ energy change, Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells. Unit 9 : Chemical Kinetics Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst, elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first-order reactions, their characteristics and half-lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions-Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation). Unit 10: Surface Chemistry Adsorption: Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions. Colloidal state: distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids-lyophilic, lyophobicmulti molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids â€“ Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation, Emulsions and their characteristics Section B: Inorganic Chemistry Unit 11: Classification Of Elements And Periodicity In Properties Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity. Unit 12: General Principles And Processes Of Isolation Of Metals Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; Steps involved in the extraction of metals - concentration, reduction (chemical and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals. Unit 13: Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogenPhysical and chemical properties of water and heavy waterStructure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen as a fuel Unit 14: s-Block Elements (Alkali And Alkaline Earth Metals) Group - 1 and 2 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.Preparation and properties of some important compounds-sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca. Unit 15: p-Block Elements Group - 13 to Group - 18 ElementsGeneral Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group. Group-wise study of the p-block elementsGroup - 13: Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; properties of boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.Group - 14: Allotropes of carbon, tendency for catenation; Structure & properties of silicates, and zeolites.Group - 15: Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotropic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of phosphorus.Group - 16: Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.Group - 17: Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.Group - 18: Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon. UNIT 16: d and f-BLOCK ELEMENTS Transition Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements-physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2 Cr2 O7 and KMnO4 . Inner Transition Elements: Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids - Electronic configuration and oxidation states. Unit 17: Co-Ordination Compounds Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Wernerâ€™s theoryligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism, Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems). Unit 18: Environmental Chemistry Environmental pollution-Atmospheric, water and soil.Atmospheric pollution-Tropospheric and StratosphericTropospheric pollutants-Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Greenhouse effect and Global warming; Acid rain;Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.Stratospheric pollution-Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer-its mechanism and effects.Water Pollution-Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.Soil pollution: Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution. Section C: Organic Chemistry Unit 19: Purification And Characterisation Of Organic Compounds Purification: Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography-principles and their applications Qualitative analysis: Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only):  Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis. Unit 20: Some Basic Principles Of Organic Chemistry Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules - hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: -C=C-, â€“ C-C-  and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism - structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)Covalent bond fission: Homolytic and heterolytic, free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Unit 21: Hydrocarbons Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.Alkanes: Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes. Alkenes:- Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis and polymerization. Alkynes: Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Nomenclature, benzene - structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel Crafts alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene. Unit 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses- Environmental effects of chloroform & iodoform. Unit 23: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer-Tiemann reaction.Ethers: Structure.Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group, Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones, Important reactions such as- Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of alpha- hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids Acidic strength and factors affecting it. General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Unit 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Unit 25: Polymers General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization-addition and condensation, co-polymerization, Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization, Some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses of polythene, nylon, polyester and Bakelite. UNIT 26: Biomolecules General introduction and importance of biomolecules.Carbohydrates: Classification-aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and constituent monosaccharides of oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose and maltose).Proteins: Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.Vitamins: Classification and functions.Nucleic Acids: Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids. UNIT 27: Chemistry in Everyday Life Chemicals in medicines: Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins - their meaning and common examples. Chemicals in food: Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents - common examples. Cleansing agents - Soaps and detergents, cleansing action. UNIT 28: PRINCIPLES RELATED TO PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY Detection of extra elements (N, S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds. Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohrâ€™s salt, potash alum.Organic compounds: Acetanilide, pnitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform. Chemistry involved in the titrimetric exercises: Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohrâ€™s salt vs KMnO4. Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations: Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO3 2-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded). Chemical principles involved in the following experiments: Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4 Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.

Reduced Syllabus of Chemistry- Class 11 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 11 Chemistry in the table below:

 Unit Portion to be Reduced Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Structure of Atom Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thomson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations Classification of Elements and Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, Periodicity in Properties Nil Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Nil States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations) Chemical Thermodynamics Heat capacity and specific heat capacity, Criteria for equilibrium Equilibrium Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), Henderson Equation Redox Reactions Applications of redox reactions Hydrogen Preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide - preparation, reactions and structure and use; s -Block Elements Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds: Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen carbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium. Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Some p -Block Elements Some important compounds: Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkali, uses.Carbon: uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses. Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques Methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis Hydrocarbons Free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Environmental Chemistry Entire chapter

Reduced Syllabus of Chemistry- Class 12 (CBSE Board)

Candidates can check the reduced syllabus of Class 12 Chemistry in the table below:

 Unit Portion to be Reduced Solid State Electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. Solutions Abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor Electrochemistry Lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion, law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, Chemical Kinetics Concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation. Surface Chemistry Emulsion-types of emulsions, catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Entire unit p-Block Elements Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Halides and Oxo acids (elementary idea only). d and f Block Elements Chemical reactivity of lanthanoids, Actinoids -Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids. Preparation and properties of KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7 Coordination Compounds Structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system). Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Uses and environmental effects of -dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Amines Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Biomolecules Oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance of carbohydrates.Vitamins - classification and functions. Enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure. Polymers Entire chapter Chemistry in Everyday life Entire chapter