CHEMISTRY

Physical chemistry

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based

on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions; Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity,

molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation;Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases,

average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule; Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and

octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law; Heat of reaction, fusion and  vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.


Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s  principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in chemical equilibrium; Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance,specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.


Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, γ), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions: Raoult’s law; Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of α, β and γ rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic chemistry

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur. Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of sodium,  potassium, magnesium and calcium; Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides.

Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculas and trigono metry